Ethical Framework Principles
Principles direct attention to important ethical responsibilities. Each principle is described below and is followed
by examples of good practice that have been developed in response to that principle.
Ethical decisions that are strongly supported by one or more of these principles without any contradiction from
others may be regarded as reasonably well founded. However, practitioners will encounter circumstances in which
it is impossible to reconcile all the applicable principles and choosing between principles may be required. A
decision or course of action does not necessarily become unethical merely because it is contentious or other
practitioners would have reached different conclusions in similar circumstances.
The challenge of working ethically means that practitioners will inevitably encounter situations where there are
competing obligations. In such situations it is tempting to retreat from all ethical analysis in order to escape a
sense of what may appear to be un-resolvable ethical tension. The framework is intended to be of assistance in
such circumstances by directing attention to the variety of ethical factors that may need to be taken into
consideration and to alternative ways of approaching ethics that may prove more useful.
No statement of ethics can totally alleviate the difficulty of making professional judgements in circumstances that
may be constantly changing and full of uncertainties. By accepting the ethical framework, members of PTUK are
committing themselves to engaging with the challenge of striving to be ethical, even when doing so involves making
difficult decisions or acting courageously.
: honouring the trust placed in the practitioner
Being trustworthy is regarded as fundamental to understanding and resolving ethical issues. Practitioners who
adopt this principle: act in accordance with the trust placed in them; regard confidentiality as an obligation arising
from the client's trust; restrict any disclosure of confidential information about clients to furthering the purposes for
which it was originally disclosed.
: respect for the client’s right to be self-governing
This principle emphasises the importance of recognising at all times that a child/young person is an individual in
their own right who has the capacity to enable their own healing and development through the therapeutic process.
Although the use of therapy may be prescribed or requested by an adult responsible for the child's well being the
practitioner must regard the interests of the child as being paramount.
The principle of autonomy opposes the manipulation of clients against their will, even for beneficial social ends.
Practitioners who respect their clients' autonomy: ensure accuracy in any advertising or information given in
advance of services offered; seek freely given and adequately informed consent from the child or, when the child
is not competent to give valid consent from the person legally responsible for the child; engage in explicit
contracting in advance of any commitment by the client; protect privacy; protect confidentiality; normally make
any disclosures of confidential information conditional on the consent of the client/carer concerned; and inform
the client and their carer(s) or those persons legally responsible for the child in advance of foreseeable conflicts of
interest or as soon as possible after such conflicts become apparent.
: a commitment to promoting the client's well-being
An obligation to act in the best interests of a client may become paramount when working with clients whose
capacity for autonomy is diminished because of immaturity, lack of understanding, extreme distress, serious
disturbance or other significant personal constraints.
Supervision & CPD
There is an obligation to use regular and on-going supervision to enhance the quality
of the services provided and to commit to updating practice by continuing professional
The principle of beneficence means acting in the best interests of the client based on professional assessment. It
directs attention to working strictly within one's limits of competence and providing services on the basis of
adequate training or experience.
Ensuring that the client's best interests are achieved requires systematic monitoring of practice and outcomes by
the best available means. It is considered important that research and systematic reflection inform practice.
: a commitment to avoiding harm to the client
Non-maleficence involves: avoiding sexual, financial, emotional or any other form of client exploitation; avoiding
incompetence or malpractice; not providing services when unfit to do so due to illness, personal circumstances or
The practitioner has an ethical responsibility to strive to mitigate any harm caused to a client even when the harm
is unavoidable or unintended. Holding appropriate insurance may assist in restitution.
Practitioners have a personal responsibility to challenge, where appropriate, the incompetence or malpractice of
others; and to contribute to any investigation and/or adjudication concerning professional practice which falls
below that of a reasonably competent practitioner and/or risks bringing discredit upon the profession.
: the fair and impartial treatment of all clients and the provision of adequate services
The principle of justice requires being just and fair to all clients and respecting their human rights and dignity. It
directs attention to considering conscientiously any legal requirements and obligations, and remaining alert to
potential conflicts between legal and ethical obligations.
Justice in the distribution of services requires the ability to determine impartially the provision of services for clients
and the allocation of services between clients. A commitment to fairness requires the ability to appreciate
differences between people and to be committed to equality of opportunity, and avoiding discrimination against
people or groups contrary to their legitimate personal or social characteristics. Practitioners have a duty to strive
to ensure a fair provision of therapeutic services, accessible and appropriate to the needs of potential clients.
: fostering the practitioner's self-knowledge and care for self
The principle of self-respect means that the practitioner appropriately applies all the above principles as
entitlements for self. This includes seeking counselling or therapy and other opportunities for personal
development as required.
There is an ethical responsibility to use supervision for appropriate personal and professional support and
development, and to seek training and other opportunities for continuing professional development. Guarding
against financial liabilities arising from work undertaken usually requires obtaining appropriate insurance. The
principle of self-respect encourages active engagement in life-enhancing activities and relationships that are
independent of relationships in therapeutic work.
Go to Top | Back to Introduction to the Ethical Framework